Sean's SSD Buyers Guide & Information Thread. Over- provisioning: Over- provisioning (sometimes spelled as OP, over provisioning, or overprovisioning) is the difference between the physical capacity of the flash memory and the logical capacity presented through the operating system (OS) as available for the user. During the garbage collection, wear- leveling, and bad block mapping operations on the SSD, the additional space from over- provisioning helps lower the write amplification when the controller writes to the flash memory. When an SSD is almost full, this could cause problems. Even for writing a small amount of data you need an completely empty block. For this reason SSDs have over- provisioning, which means more storage capacity present than is available.
That this is possible without making consumers feel cheating is thanks to manufacturers of traditional hard disks. The first level of over- provisioning comes from the computation of the capacity and the use of units for gigabyte (GB) where in fact it should be written as gibibyte (Gi. B). Both HDD and SSD vendors use the term GB to represent a decimal GB or 1,0. Flash memory (like most other electronic storage) is assembled in powers of two, so calculating the physical capacity of an SSD would be based on 1,0.
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GB (Gi. B). The difference between these two values is 7. Therefore a 1. 28 GB SSD with 0% over- provisioning would provide 1. This initial 7. 3. A 5. 00 GB hard disk only has 4. GB available, also referred to as Gi.
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Bs. A 2. 56 GB SSD has 2. Gi. Bs), but keeps 7. OS. The rest is reserved for over- provisioning to make the controller more efficient.
The second level of over- provisioning comes from the manufacturer. This level of over- provisioning is typically 0%, 7%, or 2. GB of the physical capacity and the decimal GB of the available space to the user. As an example, a manufacturer might publish a specification for their SSD at 1. GB, 1. 20 GB or 1. GB based on 1. 28 GB of possible capacity. This difference is 2.
This does not count the additional 7. GB. SSDs with a Sand.
Force controller have 2. GB worth of memory chip capacity, but are sold as 2. GB SSDs and make 2. GB available to the OS. That's 1. 2 percent of over- provisioning. The third level of over- provisioning comes from end users to gain endurance and performance at the expense of capacity. Some SSDs provide a utility that permit the end user to select additional over- provisioning.
Furthermore, if any SSD is set up with an OS partition smaller than 1. SSD as over- provisioning as well.
Over- provisioning does take away from user capacity, but it gives back reduced write amplification, increased endurance, and increased performance. It is basically the same a .
You have a 1. 28. GB drive. You decide that you are going to format your primary partition to 1. GB and leave the remainder of the drive .
This will leave an additional 8. GB of, . There is also an ATA command that can be used to set this space, but it is just easier to not use all of the space of the drive while partitioning. Even so user over provisioning via partition size is counterproductive. Users should not need to do this, all they are doing is wasting usable space on the drive. Normal consumers do not need to protect from wear and tear.
They are not doing a ton of write amplification. Modern controllers, like Sand.
Force, lower write amp in write in half. It is meant to give a larger backup of NAND in case of cell failure for server SSDs doing, for example, over 1. The only reason to do it on a consumer level I can think of is to make sure you do not fill up the whole drive with data so you can have some spare if you do fill it up. Even then there is still that ~7% from the first level talked about earlier. LSI PDF on over provisioning: link. Summary. 1. OP = part of all SSDs that use Flash memory. It is Required due to the inability to overwrite flash without it first being erased.
It is The portion of the SSD capacity held in reserve (unavailable to the user). In turn, any space that is unavailable to the user is used for . An SSD listed with 1. GB is marketed as “0% OP”, but in reality the true physical OP is ~7%. AKA every SSD out there that is marketed as 3.
GB, 6. 4GB, 1. 28. GB, 2. 56. GB, 5. GB, 1. TB, etc.. NAND used in 1. GB SSDs = 1. 28. Gi. B(1. 37. 4. 39. GB). However, they are marketed and sold as 1.
GB drives, therefore, the drives have to be set set in factory for user addressable space at 1. Gi. B(1. 28. GB), thus that difference in space is used as OP space..
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This software is not compatible with other manufacturers' SSDs.
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