A huge number of climate studies and subsequent publications adopted this or a former release of the K. While the climate classification concept has been widely applied to a broad range of topics in climate and climate change research as well as in physical geography, hydrology, agriculture, biology and educational aspects, a well- documented update of the world climate classification map is still missing. Based on recent data sets from the Climatic Research Unit (CRU) of the University of East Anglia and the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) at the German Weather Service, we present here a new digital K. Rubel, 2. 00. 6: World Map of the K. DOI: 1. 0. 1. 12. Maps. Download this map as gif- image (~ 1.
Icebreakers Volume 12: Excellent Activities for Getting Students Warmed Up Are you all set for the first day of school? Or are you still searching for the. The National Grid is the map reference system used on all Ordnance Survey maps to identify the position of any feature. Arm Map Explorer lets you locate and view any object on the planet using interactive maps. With Arm Map Explorer you can: Study physical and. Disclaimer: All efforts have been made to make this image.
B) or as pdf- file (2. MB)The underlying data of the here presented K.
The text file contains one line of header followed by 9. K. The data are available on the global land areas. For use in GIS software a copy of these data in shape format and as grid file is available: Koeppen- Geiger- GIS. For use in Google Earth the following KMZ.
MapGrids is a program for converting between the Mapping Grids used in Australia, including AMG, MGA & WGS. MapGrids may be used just for converting data in any. Select and download free geographic (GIS) data for any country in the world. BG-Map Total Station Interface User's Manual Page 4 of 13 In order to align the total station with your grid system, it is necessary to preset the horizontal angle. The most frequently used climate classification map is that of Wladimir K
Scott and Wilkerson, M. Beth, 2. 01. 0, De.
Pauw University, Greencastle, IN, USA.
Exploring the UVG Grid with Google Earth. Basic Instructions for Exploring the UVG Grid with Google Earth. Bethe Hagens. Nazca. SETTING UP GOOGLE EARTHThe basic Google Earth program is available for PC and Mac—free!—at http: //earth. SETTING UP THE UVG “UVG- grid- compiled- by- B- Hagens. Free Downloads Power Dvd Burner. FILEIn the upper left corner of the Google Earth screen, click File. You will be able to browse to where you have downloaded “UVG- grid- compiled- by- B- Hagens.
Click on it, and it will appear in the “Places” menu on the left. VIEWING AND HIDING LINESYou can view the UVG Grid in many ways. Click on the check mark by the title of any folder or file, and everything in that it disappears from the screen. Click the same spot, and it reappears. The edges of many of the figures overlap each other, and sometimes meet up to create “great circles.’Every line of the UVG is part of a great circle (equator) that divides the sphere of Earth in half. I visited Makarov in Moscow in 1.
It aligned very closely with the mid- Atlantic ridge. That was their beginning orientation.
Archaeological alignments (such as Pt. Great Pyramid) became visible later. Bill Becker, with whom I worked closely on this project for 1.
Buckminster Fuller. He realized that the red arrows of “force’ coincided with a figure relatively unknown at the time—the rhombic tetrahedron. This figure is now a staple of the new carbon 3 geometries and quasicrystal research. By adding these line segments, we discovered that the entire grid was composed of 1. Lakota creation mythology. The 1. 5 hoops created 1. Plato. We believe the synergetic structural principles of this geometry are system characteristics of Earth.
Several of the figures can be positioned within the 6. Grid in more than one way.
A tetradhedron, for example, will align in 1. The UVG Grid maps all of these different possibilities. In the list below, the number in parentheses after the name of a figure indicates the number of placements that are possible. Line Color Geometric Association Esoteric Meaning. Red Tetrahedron edges (1.
Fire. Yellow Cube edges (5) Earth. White Octahedron edges (5) White. Black Icosahedron edges (1) Water. Green Dodecahedron edges (1) Aether. Dark Blue Rhombic Dodecahedron (5)Violet Rhombic Triacontahedron (1) Buckminster Fuller. You will then need to purchase and download Google Earth Plus if you don't already have it.
This will cost you just $2. Then you can draw lines and add overlays. Also, you can choose the altitude at which you want to draw your lines. You must keep the Path dialog box open while you are creating your line. To open it back up, left click the name you.
Then you can create your line and/or add as many line segments as you want. The editing and saving is just plain clumsy, and you have to be patient. When the Path dialog box is open, you. Use the navigation dial at the bottom center of the screen to move to the location you want. You can delete line segments moving backwards from where you are by right clicking. Every right click removes the previous segment, so you need to keep your attention focused : -) Clicking the “Fly To’ command at the upper left of the screen can be really useful.
If you enter a location (name or Lat/long coordinates) in the box just below “Fly To’ and click Go, it will take you to that location and then store it in the space below. You can use either decimals or degree- minute- sec coordinates (+ and - , or NSEW). By left clicking an entry in the “Fly To’space, then right- clicking to open a drop- down menu, you can edit and rename and so forth. If you double left- click an entry, you will fly to the location. If you close Google Earth, all the locations in the space below “Fly To’ disappear.
You cannot click exactly on top of a point you've already made, so the low altitude lets you eliminate too much error. The program is pretty intuitive, and you'll quickly get the hang of it.
Map projection - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. A medieval depiction of the Ecumene (1. Johannes Schnitzer, engraver), constructed after the coordinates in Ptolemy's Geography and using his second map projection. Commonly, a map projection is a systematic transformation of the latitudes and longitudes of locations on the surface of a sphere or an ellipsoid into locations on a plane.
All map projections distort the surface in some fashion. Depending on the purpose of the map, some distortions are acceptable and others are not; therefore, different map projections exist in order to preserve some properties of the sphere- like body at the expense of other properties. There is no limit to the number of possible map projections. Even more generally, projections are the subject of several pure mathematical fields, including differential geometry and projective geometry. These useful traits of maps motivate the development of map projections. However, Carl Friedrich Gauss's Theorema Egregium proved that a sphere's surface cannot be represented on a plane without distortion. The same applies to other reference surfaces used as models for the Earth.
Since any map projection is a representation of one of those surfaces on a plane, all map projections distort. Every distinct map projection distorts in a distinct way. The study of map projections is the characterization of these distortions.
Projection is not limited to perspective projections, such as those resulting from casting a shadow on a screen, or the rectilinear image produced by a pinhole camera on a flat film plate. Rather, any mathematical function transforming coordinates from the curved surface to the plane is a projection. Few projections in actual use are perspective. For simplicity, most of this article assumes that the surface to be mapped is that of a sphere.
In reality, the Earth and other large celestial bodies are generally better modeled as oblate spheroids, whereas small objects such as asteroids often have irregular shapes. These other surfaces can be mapped as well. Therefore, more generally, a map projection is any method of .
Some of these properties are: Map projections can be constructed to preserve at least one of these properties, though only in a limited way for most. Each projection preserves or compromises or approximates basic metric properties in different ways.
The purpose of the map determines which projection should form the base for the map. Because many purposes exist for maps, many projections have been created to suit those purposes. Another consideration in the configuration of a projection is its compatibility with data sets to be used on the map. Data sets are geographic information; their collection depends on the chosen datum (model) of the Earth. Different datums assign slightly different coordinates to the same location, so in large scale maps, such as those from national mapping systems, it is important to match the datum to the projection. The slight differences in coordinate assignation between different datums is not a concern for world maps or other vast territories, where such differences get shrunk to imperceptibility. Which projection is best?
Something will always get distorted. Therefore, a diversity of projections exists to service the many uses of maps and their vast range of scales. Modern national mapping systems typically employ a transverse Mercator or close variant for large- scale maps in order to preserve conformality and low variation in scale over small areas. For smaller- scale maps, such as those spanning continents or the entire world, many projections are in common use according to their fitness for the purpose. Hence reference maps of the world often appear on compromise projections instead. Due to distortions inherent in any map of the world, the choice of projection becomes largely one of aesthetics.
The Mercator projection, developed for navigational purposes, has often been used in world maps where other projections would have been more appropriate. For example, a 1. New York Times editorial states: The time has come to discard .
In 1. 98. 9 and 1. North American geographic organizations adopted a resolution recommending against using any rectangular projection (including Mercator and Gall. For a given point, using the scale factor h along the meridian, the scale factor k along the parallel, and the angle . Because the Earth's actual shape is irregular, information is lost in this step.