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The 1. 00 Best History Books of All Time. By Nicholas Riasanovsky; Mark Steinberg. Now completely revised in this eighth edition, A History of Russia covers the entire span of the country's history, from ancient times to the post- communist present. Keeping with the hallmark of the text, Riasanovsky and Steinberg examine all aspects of Russia's history- -political, international, military, economic, social, and cultural- -with ..
One of the best aspects of science has always been its readiness to admit when it got something wrong. Theories are constantly being refigured, and new research. The following apology was published in the Observer's For the record column, Sunday March 16 2008. The article below said 'Psychodwarf' was Beppe Grillo's nickname. This synopsis of the 100 most expensive cars ever sold at auction includes images of all cars, links to the catalog descriptions, and analysis of the marques and. Peyton Williams Manning (born March 24, 1976) is a former American football quarterback who played 18 seasons in the National Football League (NFL), primarily with. The 100 Best History Books of All Time Alexander: image by Ruthven The 100 Best History Books of All Time list contains a mixture of the greatest classical, early. The 50 Greatest Breakthroughs Since the Wheel. Why did it take so long to invent the wheelbarrow? Have we hit peak innovation? What our list reveals about.
Alfred Hitchcock, 1958 (191 votes) Hitchcock’s supreme and most mysterious piece (as cinema and as an emblem of the art). Paranoia and obsession have never looked. Vespa Lx 50 2T Service Manual.
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The 5. 0 Greatest Breakthroughs Since the Wheel. Jump straight to the list. Some questions you ask because you want the right answer. Others are valuable because no answer is right; the payoff comes from the range of attempts.
Seven years ago, The Atlantic surveyed a group of eminent historians to create a ranked list of the 1. America. The panelists agreed easily on the top few names.
Lewis and Clark, or Henry Ford? Thomas Edison, or Martin Luther King? The result was of course not scientific. But the exercise of asking, comparing, and choosing helped us understand more about what these historical figures had done and about the areas in which American society had proved most and least open to the changes wrought by talented, determined men and women.
Now we turn to technology. The Atlantic recently assembled a panel of 1. The main rule for this exercise was that the innovations should have come after widespread use of the wheel began, perhaps 6,0. That ruled out fire, which our forebears began to employ several hundred thousand years earlier. We asked each panelist to make 2.
No. 3. 0.) We also invited panelists to add explanations of their choices, and I followed up with several of them and with other experts in interviews. An Atlantic Special Report. Read More. One panelist ranked his choices not by importance but by date of invention, oldest (cement) to newest (GPS satellites). Some emphasized the importance not of specific breakthroughs but of broad categories of achievement.
For instance, Joel Mokyr, an economic historian at Northwestern, nominated in his top 1. This enabled mass production and the Henry Ford. We have new sympathy for people attempting to manage universities and R& D labs. But in the end we had enough comparable and overlapping suggestions, from enough people, with enough spelled- out explanations, and enough force of experience and insight behind them, to be comfortable presenting The Atlantic. We converted all the responses into values we could enter on a spreadsheet; we weighted, as reasonably as we could, the intensity and breadth of support; we watched the combined rankings go up and down as each new response arrived; and we came up with the final ranking you see here.
One aspect of the results will be evident as soon as you start looking through them: the debatability of the choices and rankings once you move beyond the first few. For instance, anesthesia (4. If I were doing the ranking, it would be in the top 1. In this case the test for me is: Which would I miss more if it didn? That is the diversity of views about the types of historical breakthroughs that matter, with a striking consensus on whether the long trail of innovation recorded here is now nearing its end.
Innovation: A Taxonomy. The clearest example of consensus was the first item on the final compilation, the printing press. Ten of the 1. 2 people who submitted rankings had it at or near the top. To draw another parallel to our Influential Americans survey, the printing press was the counterpart to Abraham Lincoln as the clear consensus for the top choice. And just as that previous exercise revealed the major patterns through which historical figures had exerted influence. One of our panelists, Leslie Berlin, a historian of business at Stanford, organized her nominations not as an overall list but grouped into functional categories.
Here is my adaptation of Berlin. This group includes the printing press (1) and also paper, (6) and now of course the Internet, (9) the personal computer, (1. Mann, the science writer and frequent Atlantic contributor, put writing third, behind fire and agricultural improvements, including the domestication of animals.
Walter Isaacson, the biographer of Steve Jobs, Albert Einstein, and Benjamin Franklin, ranked as his top three innovations items from this category: alphabetization, paper, and the printing press. Innovations that are integral to the physical and operating infrastructure of the modern world.